We left Helena and headed south on I-15 for a short drive of about 70 miles to the city of Butte. There was nothing in particular that we wanted to see there, but since it was on our route, we thought it might merit a visit. So we made a three night reservation at the Butte KOA and, once set up there, headed over to the visitor center next to the park to see what we might want to visit in the area. It turns out Butte is a pretty interesting town, with plenty of history.
Established in 1864 as a mining camp , Butte experienced rapid development in the late 1900’s, and was Montana’s first major industrial city. In its heyday it was one of the largest copper boomtowns in the west.
Butte’s slogan is the “richest hill on earth.” Over the course of its history, Butte’s mining operations generated an excess of $48 billion worth of gold, silver, and copper. But the mining has also resulted in numerous environmental implications for the city and it is the site of the largest superfund effort in the U.S which include removing and cleaning the soil, as well as, adding many walking/biking trails throughout the town and hillsides. Today the hill overlooking the city contains the remains (huge headframes or main above-ground structures) of numerous shafts mines with a three mile walking/biking loop that highlights each mine.
As we drove around the mining hillside on the north side of the city we came upon a memorial to the 1917 Speculator Mine Disaster, the most deadly event in underground hard rock mining in U.S. history. As part of a fire safety system, the mining company was installing an electric cable down into the Granite Mountain mine. During installation the cable fell into an area approximately 2,500 feet below the surface and was damaged. When a foreman with a carbide lamp tried to inspect the damage, he accidentally ignited the oil-soaked cloth insulation on the cable. The fire quickly climbed the cable, and turned the shaft into a chimney, igniting the timbers in the shaft and consuming oxygen in the mines.
A total of 168 miners died in the ensuing blaze, most from asphyxia. Some of the miners did not die immediately, they survived for a day or two in the tunnels underground. Some left notes written while they waited in hopes of rescue. A few managed to barricade themselves behind bulkheads in the mine and were rescued after as long as 55 hours.
The Butte Chamber of Commerce offers a trolley car tour of the city leaving periodically each day from the visitor center next door to the RV park. We purchased tickets in the morning and boarded the trolley for the noon tour.
The tour meandered through the city while the driver, a life long resident of Butte, gave an interesting running narration of the sights. The trolley only makes one stop, a visit to the Berkeley Pit, a former open pit copper mine opened in 1955 and closed in 1982.
A tunnel leads through the surrounding wall of the pit to an observation deck.
Once everyone on the tour was on the observation deck our guide, Mark, gave a short talk explaining some interesting information about the mine and efforts to clean contaminated water seeping into it.
When the pit was closed, the water pumps in an old nearby shaft mine, 3,800 feet below the surface, were turned off and groundwater from the surrounding aquifers began to slowly fill the pit, rising at about the rate of one foot a month. Since its closure in 1982 the water level in the pit has risen to within 150 feet of the natural water table.
To prevent the mine water from entering the water table a new filter system pumps water out of the pit, removes impurities, and sends the water into a nearby creek. The amount pumped out each day equals the amount seeping into the pit. Since there is no way to prevent the water from entering the pit, this process will proceed far into the future.
After viewing the Berkeley Pit the group re-boarded the trolley and we headed into the city. As with most mining towns, Butte had a very diverse population, and an equal number of vices.
As the trolley made its way through town our guide, Mark, pointed out an auto repair shop that he said at one time was owned by the father of a high school classmate of his named Bobby Knievel. While Mark called him Bobby, the world knew him as Evel Knievel, the famous motorcycle daredevil. We wrote of Evel Knievel in a 2017 post about a visit to Twin Falls, ID where he attempted to jump the Snake River Canyon on a rocket propelled vehicle. We didn’t realize that Knievel was born, raised, and is buried in Butte.
Mark said he didn’t hang around with Knievel in high school as he was just too wild. As an example, he said Knievel tried to ride a motorcycle up the stairs inside the county courthouse. Later he worked for one of the mines where he drove a large earth mover. Knievel was fired when he made the earth mover do a motorcycle-type wheelie and drove it into Butte’s main power line, leaving the city without electricity for several hours.
About nine miles south of Butte is Thompson Park, a municipal recreation area with 25 miles of trails for hiking, horseback riding or mountain biking. A rail trail on the old path of the historic Milwaukee Railroad (Milwaukee Road) provides a gently sloped (trains don’t like steep grades and neither do we) path that goes through two tunnels and over a 600 foot trestle. After a couple of days exploring Butte we needed to stretch our legs, so we drove down to hike that trail.
The Milwaukee Road began operations in Montana by running the steam engines common at the time. However, they soon began to believe that electric powered trains would be a better option. With the low cost electricity from the Columbia River hydro power plants, company owners believed that electricity would be much cheaper than steam. In 1915 the first section of the line switched to electricity and soon the entire line was electrified. The electric trains proved to be efficient and effective. They were dependable and operated well in the cold harsh conditions.
Reading the display panel in the photo above, John became more interested when he noticed the banner on the engine pictured in the insert. It clearly noted that the electric engine had been constructed in his home town of Erie, PA, where they are still producing electrical railroad engines today.
As advertised, the trail is a well-maintained, level track through a pine forest with occasional views of the surrounding hills and mountains.
The trail goes through two tunnels. The first is 550 feet long, an easy one to go through without a flashlight.
The other one, at 1,110 feet, is a bit more of a challenge, especially with the obstacle we encountered at its entrance. As we approached the tunnel it appeared to have a layer of concrete at the entrance, standing about a foot above the trail surface.
As we approached the tunnel we discovered it was a thick layer of ice!
Unsure of how far into the tunnel the ice extended we took headlamps out of our pack and got out a set of hiking poles before heading in. The ice was very smooth and firm but wet so we proceeded very slowly.
As we carefully proceeded into the dark tunnel we found the ice flow ended about a quarter of the way through and the surface turned to dry, firm dirt.
About a half mile from the second tunnel we approached a curve in the tracks. In the distance we could see the long trestle, our turn around point.
The trestle is impressive at 600 feet in length, rising 130 feet above the valley floor. The trail ends just 100 yards from the 2,300 foot long Pipestone Pass tunnel, which is closed to the public.
After returning to the Jeep we drove the road that goes under the trestle to get a view of it from below.
Butte is home to Montana Tech, a small college formally known as the Montana School of Mines that is now part of the University of Montana system. Years ago students at the school constructed a large “M” on the small butte above the campus.
A dirt road leads up to a spot just below the “M” where there is a great view of the city below.
Many towns and cities in the west (including our adopted home town of Boulder City) have a similar letter (or letters) above town. But one of the things that make the “M” above Butte unique is that it is lit up a night. Even more unique is that they can light up just the center portion of the “M” when the college has a significant athletic win, creating a “V” for victory.
We arrived in Butte with no expectation as to what we would find, but were pleasantly surprised at the interesting things we found. The town has an unique story to tell, making a stop here worth the time.
We’ll now continue south for a three day visit to Idaho Falls, ID. Again, we have no expectations for our visit, but it is a city of significant size and is on our route, so we’re curious as to what’s there. We’ll let you know what we find . . .